Fungicides, herbicides and insecticides are all pesticides used in plant protection. A fungicide is a particular type of pesticide that controls fungal infection by in particular inhibiting or killing the fungus causing the disease. The mode of action of fungicides is specific that small genetic changes in fungi can overcome the usefulness of these fungicides so that pathogen populations can become resistant to future applications. Fungicides can be applied as dust, granules, gas (as smoke, mist, fog or aerosol) and liquid. To be effective fungicides necessitates multiple applications.
They can be toxic, are applied in forms that can easily be absorbed by the human skin and the frequency of the application increase risk to the applicant.
Mobility in a Plant
Contact fungicides (protectants) remain on the surface of the plant while systemic (penetrants) fungicides become imbedded in the plant.
These fungicides stay on/ in the plant and pose a risk to the consumer.
Role in Protection
They can be preventive or curative but are specific for the cure of a definite symptom of fungi.
Concerns. Since the characteristic to stick to the surface, rain can wash them of and have an effect on the eco system.
Breadth of Activity
They can be single site or multi site active.
Multi site activity caters for a broader spectrum of fungi and could therefore contaminate the product more than is necessary.
Mode of Action
Fungicides kill fungi by damaging cell membranes or disrupting key processes. Others impact specific metabolic pathways such as the production of sterols or chitin. They are mostly categorised as chemicals.
The wider ecosystem is not always being taken into consideration. What might be to the advantage of one aspect might lead to the disappearance of other beneficial organisms.
Type of Chemical
It can be organic or inorganic.
Inorganic compounds e.g. sulphur, mercury etc can accumulate in the soil over a period of time to the detriment of both the producer as the consumer.
The Growing Need for Organizational Ethics Programs
Organizations are moral agents and accountable for their employees, investors, suppliers and customers. Therefore they are statutory and legally accountable and ethical behavior is assigned to them as legal entities. This makes them accountable to society as a whole. Apart from this compliance orientation, ethics is moral reasoning and moral judgment. As the demand for ethical behavior increases vertically, horizontally and laterally, the supply of this commodity can only be guaranteed by manufacturing the desired product i.e. integrity by developing sound ethical programs.
Factors Contributing to Ethical Problems in the Global Corporate World
The main factors seem to be globalization and the magnitude of moral views based on religion, ethnic prejudices, national values etc. This is apparent in the significant indicators in the competitive business world i.e. not assuming personal (corporate or national) responsibility and accountability. A lack of open and frequent communication and a culture of agendas, dishonest and ambiguous handling of crisis impacts, a lack of a common code of business ethics.
The establishment of a global corporate culture code of ethics seems to be the solution. To promote legal and ethical conduct , organizations should be encouraged to develop ethics program by establishing, communicating and monitoring the ethical values and legal requirements that characterize its history, cultural / industry operating environment.
Without this employees and other role-players will not understand what behaviors are expectable. Incentives will become increasingly important. The implementation of a ethics training culture and communication system on policies, expectations, laws regulations and social standards will ensure that knowledge to be conveyed on ethical dimensions of business decision.
The knowledge on how to address it, interpreting the ambiguity, providing employees with guidelines for ethical decision making (a code of conduct) is solutions. Systems to measure the effectiveness of the organization’s ethics initiative must be developed and the building of systems to support people in making ethical business decisions culminate in the training (conditioning?) of employees on their ethics responsibilities. The chain seems to be code-training- improvement- advice.