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Certain neurotoxins do not alter the nerve cell structure but interfere with the transmission of nerve impulses, i.e. neurotransmission. The most common neurotransmitters are acetylcholine and norepinephrine complimented by numerous amine neurotransmitters and amino acids.

General Categories


This is caused by Barbiturates which induces inoxia to the brain while cyanide and azide inhibit cytochrome oxidase resulting in cytotoxic anoxia. The neuron cell body are affected directly by methyl mercury which destroy the neuron. Doxorubicin interlace with DNA and inhibits the synthesis of RNA. Organ toxins used as pesticides accumulate in the Golgi structures which result in cell swelling and necrosis. Glutamate affects the dendrites and have neuro excitatory effects. Alcohol in pregnant women can result in abnormal neuronal migration in their offspring with occurrences of dendrite spines.


Proximal Axonopathy. Imunodiproprionitrile impairs transport of neuro filaments and lead to distal axon atrophy.

Distal Axonopathy. The neurofibrillary structures are affected by thallium resulting in mitochondrial swelling while certain organophosphates and solvents result in distal axonopathy and delayed neuropathy (paralysis of the muscles). Hexacarbons (n-hexane and n-butylketone) result in axonal swelling. Clioquinol (for travel sickness) can result in the degeneration of the dorsal root ganglion and optic nerves (distal axonopathy).

Interference with Impulse Conduction. These toxicants target mainly the nerve membranes. Tetrodotoxin blocks action potential while saxitoxin blocks the sodium channels but both can lead to death due to respiratory failure. DDT and pyrethroids have the same effect.

Interference with Synaptic Transmission. Botoliumtoxin causes paralysis of muscles due to impairment of acetylcholine from the motor end nerve endings. Black Widow spider venom does the opposite, but the results are the same i.e. paralysis. Tetanoplasmin blocks the release of inhibitory amino acid transmitters causing spastic paralysis by reaching the CNS by retrograde axonal transport.

Glial Cells and Myelin

Myelinating. Lead, triparanol, diphtheria, and triethyltin are all causing defects to the myelinating cells.

Myelin Sheath. This toxins target the myelin sheath resulting in disruption of the membrane structure. Cyanate, lead etc all causes myelinopathy.

Blood Vessels and Edema.

Extracellular Edema. The damage to the endothelial cells causes extravasations of plasma in the brain as the result of lead. Mercury compounds and organic arsenicals can cause extracellular edema.

Cellular Edema. Effects on the perikaryon, axon and nerve endings can be effected by cyanide, methylsulfoxime etc.

Sources of Information on Change and Upgrading of Procedures and Equipment

The duty of a fire service is to supply personnel, apparatus and equipment to stop,
control or neutralize the critical effects of fire and other hazards, including hazardous
materials, endangering life, property and the environment. It must be integrated into community emergency structures and must be able to respond to all emergencies from small fires to large scale terrorism. The fire services must coordinate its efforts through mutual aid agreements, Fire Defence Board, State Fire Marshals etc. Through the collective analysis of functions and needs the identification of new innovative changes will become obvious to the fire service planners.

The Risk Assessment
The risk assessment within the area of responsibility of the fire service i.e. the identification of fire hazards, implications on people at risk, evaluation – removal – reduction – protection measures, the planning – informing – instructing – training and the review will all indicate areas of needs for new devices or procedures. (UK Department for Communities and Local Government Publications, 2006).
Changing Community Profile
Changes in the community profile i.e. new residential developments, criminal trends (e.g. arson) etc. will be indicators for the changing and growing needs of the fire department.
The Risk Management Plan
To cater for all eventualities, (risk identification – evaluation – control – review) the fire department will identify and create a basis for change and renewal to be able to execute the risk management plan.
Community Risk Reduction Planning
To be able to serve the community the fire department needs to prepare, to mitigate impacts and eventually respond. This all will need either renewal or change in existing equipment and procedures. The much neglected facet of recovery after the incident might demand innovative change.
New devices and upgrading of systems is essential. But in the majority of cases these growing needs needn’t be expensive. By changing procedures and improvising on existing resources high short term expenditure can be avoided.
UK Department for Communities and Local Government Publications, (2006). Fire Risk Assessment.
Fire services are part of the broad emergency response community in service of public safety. These functions are interdisciplinary and demand response from small house fires to terrorist attacks (e.g. Sept 11 2001). For the numerous possibilities of eventualities different specialised variants of vehicles ranging from administrative, control, and technological specific circumstances vehicles.

Types of Functions and Specialised Needs

Command Car. Independent movement for the commander. Enhances coordination.

Command Unit. A mobile operations room.

Operational Support Trucks. Logistical vehicles for supplying large volumes of equipment to the site.

Small Fire Trucks. Basic fire fighting.

Fire Engines. Large trucks manned by a group and carrying fire fighting and rescue gear, often with a small water and foam supply.

Rescue Engines. Fire engines with more rescue equipment onboard.

Tankers. Large trucks manned by one squad and a water supply of several thousand litres. (might include water and foam canons).

Rescue Trucks. Either a larger panel truck or a smaller truck, equipped with a range of rescue gear (jaws of life, saws, cutters or work platforms).

Equipment Carriers. Vehicle “all sorts” depending of the equipment stowed. (e.g. specialized gear for water rescue operations or hazmat).

Ladder Trucks. Large trucks with a telescopic ladder and an attached bucket or platform at the end.

Hose Carriers. Large trucks with a supply of rolled and pre-coupled hoses for longer distances.

Ambulances. Classically based on a delivery-truck chassis with a special body and provides pre-hospital critical care for at least one patient. (manned by paramedics and often an emergency physician).

Crew Carrier. Often a small bus, used for non-emergency rides and transfer of additional personnel.

Bulk Foam Units. Large capacity foam tankers.

Incident Response Unit’s. Decontamination vehicles to handle terrorist attacks.

Scientific Support Units. Specialised vehicles carrying vast amounts of chemical monitoring equipment.


The above platforms of wheels and tracks can be replaced in different permutations with fixed wing, rotor or ship.


Their Nature

Fungicides, herbicides and insecticides are all pesticides used in plant protection. A fungicide is a particular type of pesticide that controls fungal infection by in particular inhibiting or killing the fungus causing the disease. The mode of action of fungicides is specific that small genetic changes in fungi can overcome the usefulness of these fungicides so that pathogen populations can become resistant to future applications. Fungicides can be applied as dust, granules, gas (as smoke, mist, fog or aerosol) and liquid. To be effective fungicides necessitates multiple applications.


They can be toxic, are applied in forms that can easily be absorbed by the human skin and the frequency of the application increase risk to the applicant.

Their Characteristics

Mobility in a Plant

Contact fungicides (protectants) remain on the surface of the plant while systemic (penetrants) fungicides become imbedded in the plant.


These fungicides stay on/ in the plant and pose a risk to the consumer.

Role in Protection

They can be preventive or curative but are specific for the cure of a definite symptom of fungi.

Concerns. Since the characteristic to stick to the surface, rain can wash them of and have an effect on the eco system.

Breadth of Activity

They can be single site or multi site active.


Multi site activity caters for a broader spectrum of fungi and could therefore contaminate the product more than is necessary.

Mode of Action

Fungicides kill fungi by damaging cell membranes or disrupting key processes. Others impact specific metabolic pathways such as the production of sterols or chitin. They are mostly categorised as chemicals.


The wider ecosystem is not always being taken into consideration. What might be to the advantage of one aspect might lead to the disappearance of other beneficial organisms.

Type of Chemical

It can be organic or inorganic.


Inorganic compounds e.g. sulphur, mercury etc can accumulate in the soil over a period of time to the detriment of both the producer as the consumer.

The Growing Need for Organizational Ethics Programs

Organizations are moral agents and accountable for their employees, investors, suppliers and customers. Therefore they are statutory and legally accountable and ethical behavior is assigned to them as legal entities. This makes them accountable to society as a whole. Apart from this compliance orientation, ethics is moral reasoning and moral judgment. As the demand for ethical behavior increases vertically, horizontally and laterally, the supply of this commodity can only be guaranteed by manufacturing the desired product i.e. integrity by developing sound ethical programs.

Factors Contributing to Ethical Problems in the Global Corporate World

The main factors seem to be globalization and the magnitude of moral views based on religion, ethnic prejudices, national values etc. This is apparent in the significant indicators in the competitive business world i.e. not assuming personal (corporate or national) responsibility and accountability. A lack of open and frequent communication and a culture of agendas, dishonest and ambiguous handling of crisis impacts, a lack of a common code of business ethics.

Possible Solutions

The establishment of a global corporate culture code of ethics seems to be the solution. To promote legal and ethical conduct , organizations should be encouraged to develop ethics program by establishing, communicating and monitoring the ethical values and legal requirements that characterize its history, cultural / industry operating environment.

Without this employees and other role-players will not understand what behaviors are expectable. Incentives will become increasingly important. The implementation of a ethics training culture and communication system on policies, expectations, laws regulations and social standards will ensure that knowledge to be conveyed on ethical dimensions of business decision.

The knowledge on how to address it, interpreting the ambiguity, providing employees with guidelines for ethical decision making (a code of conduct) is solutions. Systems to measure the effectiveness of the organization’s ethics initiative must be developed and the building of systems to support people in making ethical business decisions culminate in the training (conditioning?) of employees on their ethics responsibilities. The chain seems to be code-training- improvement- advice.

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All organisations in the community in contact with the symptoms, diagnoses, intervention and implementation of community safety can get involved. (Ekblom, P., 2006).

Typical Role Players and Contributions

Fire Service

Implementing intervention and diversion programmes with convicted and at risk offenders. Reducing arson incidents by rapid removal of fire risk vehicles, rubbish dumping interventions and observation of unoccupied properties. Maintaining an arson and hoax calls data base.

Health Authorities and Insurance Companies

They maintain a data base relating to incidence and costs of arson damage (physical and the resulting claims).

Local Education Authorities

They maintain absenteeism and at risk young people data bases. The educational welfare service also work continuously on social and psychological problem cases.

Local Authorities

Environmental Services. Speedy removal of deserted vehicles, street cleaning, improved lighting and maintenance of open spaces.

Finance. Calculating losses to the Council due to arson in cooperation with their insurance company.

Housing and Planning. Logging of relevant crime information, helpful area design and management by utilising their area managers and neighbourhood wardens.

Leisure Services and Public Parks. Park Rangers services can advise, create reporting systems and gather relevant information.

Town Planning. Guide new development, redevelopment and rejuvenation of neighbourhoods by insistence on a crime impact analysis.

Social Services. They can report on at risk behavior individuals and on vulnerable people (e.g. aged etc.)

Public Transport. Due to their widespread activities they are a valuable source of timely information.

Youth Services. They can offer youth diversion programs and create a valuable source of information.

Local Businesses
They can assist in sponsorships of programs, promotions on security and safety products etc.

Local Media
Due to accurate area coverage and reporting actions can be prevented and pre-empted. Reporting can be a deterrent for prospective arsonists and media data bases can assist in identifying doubtful cases.

Neighbourhood Watch
By awareness raising and information gathering they can add value to the overall prevention and reaction structure.

With their generic functions of law and order they can predict trends, initiate crime prevention strategies, liaise with the community and create structure.

Ekblom, P. (2006). The Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity: A framework for Crime Reduction Toolkits – Revised.